2-AG (2-Arachidonoylglycerol) is a major endocannabinoid produced from lipids in cellular membranes, mostly but not exclusively in response to cellular activity and is present at relatively high levels in the central nervous system. Throughout the body, endocannabinoids are involved in the regulation of key processes such as cell division, energy metabolism, and inflammation. Therapeutically, 2-AG has been associated with pain relief, suppression of vomiting, stimulation of appetite and the inhibition of tumor growth.
2014 U.S. Farm Bill
The Agricultural Act of 2014 also known as the “Farm Bill”, was signed by President Obama on February 7, 2014. Section 7606 highlights the legitimacy of Industrial Hemp Research, authorizing industrial hemp, Cannabis Plants containing less than 0.3 % or less THC by weight, to be used in research in pilot programs by state or institutions of higher education. https://nifa.usda.gov/industrial-hemp
Agricultural Hemp refers to varieties of the Cannabis Sativa L. plant that contain less than 0.3% THC in the dry weight material.
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is an endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter, a derivative of arachidonic acid that occurs naturally in the brain (as well as some foods) and acts as a messenger molecule, playing roles in appetite, depression, memory, pain and fertility; one of the two known endocannabinoids. The name is taken from the Sanskrit word Ananda, which means “joy, bliss, delight”, and amide.
Aroma is a term used to describe the general smell and/or taste of a certain plant or flower. Aroma descriptions are basic guideline as consumers’ interpretation of aromas (such as “earthy,” skunky,” or “citrus“) can vary.
Bioavailability is the proportion, degree and rate at which a substance or drug is absorbed into the body/system and so is able to have an active effect.
Bud refers to the actual flower of the cannabis or marijuana plant. The flower is harvested and used for recreational or medicinal purposes. The cannabis bud contains the highest concentrations of active cannabinoids.
Budtenders (Sales Associates) are the employees in a retail cannabis shop or dispensary who may be able to answer your questions on strains, cannabis products, and make suggestions based on your needs.
Cannabinoids & Cannabinoid Acids
Cannabinoids & Cannabinoid Acids are chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant, that act upon the human body’s cannabinoid receptors, and produce various effects including pain relief and possibly other medically beneficial uses. All classes derive from cannabigerol (CBG) compounds. There are over 100 known cannabinoids including: • CBC (Cannabichromene) • CBCA (Cannabichromenenic acid) • CBCV (Cannabichromevarin) • CBD (Cannabidiol) • CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) • CBDV (Cannabidivarin) • CBDVA (Cannabidivarinic acid) • CBE (Cannabielsoin) • CBG (Cannabigerol) • CBGA (Cannabigerolic acid) • CBGM (Cannabigerol Monomethyl Ether) • CBGV (Cannabigerovarin) • CBGVA (Cannabigerovarinic acid) • CBL (Cannabicyclol) • CBN (Cannabinol) • CBT (Cannabicitran) • CBV (Cannabivarin) • THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) • THCA (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid) • THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) • THCVA (Tetrahydrocanabivarinic acid)
Cannabis Oil (CBD Oil)
Cannabis Oil (CBD Oil) is the concentrated cannabis extract from the cannabis plant. CBD Oil may contain varying levels of THC, CBC and other cannabinoids.
Cannabis Sativa L
Cannabis Sativa L. is a species of plant in the Cannabis genus that refers to both agricultural hemp and marijuana. Cannabis grows almost anywhere and has long been cultivated both for the production of hemp and to be used as a drug throughout recorded history. The use of cannabis includes industrial fiber, fabric, rope, fuel, food, seed oil, recreation and medicine.
CB1 & CB2
CB1, CB2 – Cannabinoid Receptors are located throughout the body and are part of the endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoid receptors are of a class of cell membrane receptors which are involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory. • CB1 Receptor is found primarily in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). • CB2 Receptor is found primarily in the peripheral nervous system and immune system. CB2 receptors may be responsible for anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic effects of cannabis seen in animal models.
CBD is the abbreviation for cannabidiol, one of the most prevalent cannabinoids found in cannabis. CBD is believed to be beneficial for human and animal health and is being researched for its use as a medical treatment for pain, inflammation, anxiety and other ailments without the psychoactive effects associated with THC.
CBD Rich & CBD Dominant
- CBD Rich refers to CBD prepared from cannabis plants that are higher in CBD than plants bred historically for recreational use that contain more THC. CBD Rich products contain either equal amounts of CBD and THC or more amounts of CBD.
- CBD Dominant refers to strains or products that are CBD Rich but have very little THC.
CBG (cannabigerol) is one of many “minor” cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant and is the chemical parent of THC and CBD. Because it is non-psychotropic, CBG may have a wide range of potential applications. Scientists are looking into studying CBG alone as well as in combination with other cannabinoids and therapies for the possible treatment of many conditions.
The clippings from a cannabis plant can be rooted and grown through a cloning process of the mother plant, from which the clone was cut keeping consistency in the plants chemical and molecular structure.
CO2 Extraction is a method used to extract oil concentrates from plants. CO2 gas is pressurized into a safe liquid and used to extract oils with the advantage of no solvent residue.
Concentrates are a potent consolidation of cannabinoids made by dissolving cannabis from its plant form into a solvent, resulting in a variety of products with common slang terms including Shatter, Wax, BHO (butane has oil) and Dabs.
Dab or dabbing is a slang term used to refer to a dose of cannabis concentrates “dabbed” onto a hot surface and inhaled.
DEA Drug Scheduling
DEA Drug Scheduling refers to the classification of drugs, substances and certain chemicals that are used to make drugs. Drugs are classified into 5 categories (or schedules) at the federal level by the DEA. The categories are designated by the drug’s acceptable medical use in treatment in the US, their relative abuse potential, and the likelihood of causing dependence when abused. Schedule 1 is the most restrictive designation.
Cannabinoid acids must be “activated” (decarboxylated), usually by heat, to obtain the most desirable and effective results of using the plant for either medicinal or recreational purposes.
Delta-8-THC a subagent of the primary form of THC (delta-9-THC) is another form of THC found in cannabis that exhibits a lower psychotropic potency.
Dietary Supplement is a product intended for ingestion that has nutritional value to supplement the diet. Dietary supplements are FDA regulated as foods. At this time, CBD cannot be considered a dietary supplement.
Dispensary is a general term referring to a location where a patient or consumer can legitimately and safely access cannabis from a ‘legal’ cannabis distributor.
Edibles are medicated edible goods that have been infused with cannabis extracts. Edibles include baked goods such as cookies and brownies, candies, gum, flavored coffee drinks, breads, and more. Dispensaries also often sell marijuana-infused butters or oils for patients or consumers to make their own edibles. The active components from the cannabis extracts require longer to take when consumed as an edibles as they need to be absorbed through the digestive system.
Endocannabinoid System (ECS)
The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) refers to a collection of cell receptors and corresponding molecules that is a natural network in our bodies. These receptors are found throughout the body and are involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, sleep, mood, immune function, memory and more.
Endogenous: naturally self-made; originating from within an organism.
The Entourage Effect is the therapeutic effect of using the whole cannabis plant rather than an isolated part. It is suggested that using materials from the whole plant creates the ‘entourage effect’ resulting in more therapeutic value. In other words, use of the whole plant has more value than the sum of its parts.
Essential oils are naturally occurring, volatile aromatic compounds that are found in the seeds, bark, stems, roots, flowers, and other parts of plants and are what gives plants their distinctive smells. Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many types of medicinal plants and flowers. The oils are typically obtained by distillation, resin tapping, and cold pressing. Essential oils have enhanced lives for thousands of years and are used as fragrances in perfumery, medicine and alternative medicines such as aromatherapy. Other common uses include massage oils, inhalation, soothing baths, topical applications, cosmetic and beauty treatments, dietary purposes, spiritual and religious use.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for protecting public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, and medical devices; and by ensuring the safety of our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA examines, tests, and approves a wide range of items for medical use, including drugs and medical appliances.
Feminized plants come from seeds that have been selectively bred to produce only female plants. Female plants produce the flowers where most of cannabinoids are found that are used to create medical marijuana products.
First-pass Metabolism -The phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is important to understand for dosing and bioavailability of drugs.
Cannabis ‘flowers’ are the reproductive organ of the female plants and are the hairy, sticky, crystal-covered buds, Calyx, Pistil, Fan Leaves and Trichrome, that are harvested and dried to be used for medication. When they are allowed to be fertilized by male plants, the flowers will produce cannabis seeds. If not, they will continue to produce the resin that contains their active cannabinoids until they are harvested or begin to die.
Cannabis ‘Heirlooms’ are the strains of cannabis landrace that were collected from various regions of the world in the 1960’s and 1970’s and then were cultivated in Northern California and Hawaii.
Hemp is a strain of Cannabis sativa L. that has been historically grown for the fibrous materials found in the stalks and seeds and naturally contains minimal amounts of THC (the psychoactive compound found in cannabis sativa L.). Hemp has been used industrially to develop items, such as food, fuel, clothing, fiber, rope, paper, construction materials, and more. Today, hemp is also being used for a variety of other purposes. The flowering portions of the hemp variety may be used to extract cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinoids, terpenes and other products.
Hemp Seed Oil
Hemp Seed Oil is the oil extracted from cannabis seeds. Hemp seed oil is high in unsaturated fatty acids and has high nutritional value because of its ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids, which matches the balance required by the human body. The oil is used in a variety of food products and has no psychoactive properties. Hemp seed oil is used in body care products like soaps, moisturizers, shampoos and detergents, and also used for industrial lubricants, paints, inks, fuel, and plastics. Hempseed oil has also received attention in recent years as a possible biodiesel fuel.
Hemp Seed Oil vs. Hemp 'Flower Oil
- Hemp Seed Oil – is made using only the seeds of the hemp (cannabis) plant. Hemp seeds are considered a great source of protein, have an abundance of essential amino and fatty acids and have a high nutritional value. Hemp seed oil contains no CBD, THC or other cannabinoids that are found in the stalks, flowers, stems and leaves of the hemp plant. (also read more in hemp seed oil glossary term)
- Hemp ‘Flower’ Oil – is extracted from the stalks, flowers, stems and leaves of the hemp plant. Hemp oil is full of cannabinoids, the natural compounds that are only found in cannabis plants, and has high levels of CBD and very low levels of THC (the psychotropic compound).
Hemptourage Effect refers to the “entourage effect” of compounds present in hemp-derived CBD oil to optimize health and wellness.
Homeostasis is the natural tendency of the body to seek and maintain a condition of balance or equilibrium within its internal environment, even when faced with external changes. For example, maintaining body temperature.
Hybrid, also known as crossbreeding, refers to a plant that is genetically a cross between one or more separate strains of the same plant. Hybrids can happen naturally, but can also be bred specifically to combine desired traits of the original plants.
Hydroponic refers to a system of gardening that does not use soil. Plants are grown in water and receive nutrients from mineral nutrient solutions rather than soil.
Indica Cannabis plants are shorter plants with dense branches and wide leaves. Indica strains are well suited to be grown indoors, used to relieve stress, aid with sleep and relaxation.
Kosher Cannabis refers to cannabis edible products that have been prepared in accordance with Jewish Dietary Laws.
Landrace are original strains of cannabis that are indigenous to a particular area or region and have adapted to the region and environment in which it was grown. Landrace strains have developed over centuries having never been breed systematically.
Marijuana is a general term for the psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant intended for medical or recreational use. The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); and is one of hundreds of known compounds and cannabinoids in the plant. Cannabis can be used by smoking, vaporizing, within food, or as an extract.
Medical marijuana refers to using the whole marijuana (cannabis) plant or its basic extracts to treat various diseases and medical conditions. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not recognized or approved marijuana as medicine. Scientific study of the chemicals/cannabinoids in marijuana, has led to FDA-approved medications that contain cannabinoid chemicals in pill form. Marijuana is still classified as a Schedule I substance by the DEA.
Neuropathic Pain is a complex, chronic pain state that frequently is accompanied by tissue injury. Nerves are responsible for transmitting signals between the brain and various regions of the body. With neuropathic pain, the nerve fibers themselves might be damaged, injured or even dysfunctional. Damaged nerve fibers send incorrect signals to other pain centers in the body. Neuropathic pain affects almost 1 in every 100 people. More than 100 complex and different types of neuropathic pain exist.
Non-psychotoxic refers to an ingredient or drug that will not get you ‘high’ and will not alter or have a detrimental effect on the mind, personality, or behavior.
Nutraceutical is a portmanteau, combining the words “nutrient” and “pharmaceutical”. It is a broad term used for food products or parts of a food, that allegedly provide medicinal or health benefits. Nutraceuticals do not undergo testing for medical and/or health benefits. The FDA does not recognize the term ‘nutraceutical’ and thus are considered dietary supplements and food additives, under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The philosophy behind nutraceuticals is to focus on prevention and treatments for disease and to promote general well-being.
Patent #6630507 – The US Government owns the patent on ‘Cannabinoids as Antioxidants and Neuroprotectants’. ‘The United States of America as represented by the Department of Health and Human Services’ filed for the patent in 2001 and was issued Patent #6630507 from the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office in 2003. The US Government has issued a number of other cannabis related patents. US Patent & Trademark Office
Technically ‘pharmaceutical grade’ products must exceed 99% purity (natural sources) and contain no binders, fillers, excipients, dyes, or unknown substances. The current standards for assessing cannabis ingredients and production are limited. Individual product manufacturers strive to ensure that their ingredients and production processes meet the highest standards. “Pharmaceutical Grade” cannot be applied to dietary supplements. Dietary supplements and other nutraceuticals are subject to their own unique set of cGMPs (current good manufacturing practices. It is important to know how and where any cannabis or CBD product is manufactured.
Phenotype is a term that is used in the cultivation of plants. It refers to the physical, biochemical and observable characteristics, including cell structure, height, color, branching and leaf configuration. The phenotype is dependent on which genes are dominant and on the interaction between genes and environment.
PCR is the abbreviation for Phyto-Cannabinoid Rich Hemp Oil.
Phytocannabinoids are the plant-based cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. There are over 100 naturally occurring chemicals found in the cannabis plant including CBD and CBG. (also see cannabinoids)
The pistil is the cannabis plant’s female sex organ and contains the ovary. The plant’s seed develops in the ovary when it is fertilized. The pistil is long and covered in sticky resin and designed to trap the pollen. Various strains of cannabis have pistils that look slightly different, but all perform the same functions. The longer the pistil is denied pollination from a male, the more it will produce cannabinoid and terpene-rich resin.
Psychotropic Medication is any medication or drug capable of affecting the mind, emotions or behavior. There are many legal drugs prescribed for treatment of conditions including anxiety, depression, sleep and bipolar disorder. There are illegal psychotropic drugs, such as cocaine, that people use to deal with or escape from various physical and/or psychological conditions. THC is the psychtropic compound found in the cannabis plant.
Raw (cannabis) oil is the pure distilled oil that is extracted from the marijuana plant without heating it. Raw oils retain beneficial nutrients that are lost when heated. Raw and active cannabinoids interact with different receptors and enzymes in the human body. Raw cannabinoids have been said to be more effective for long-term treatment for chronic conditions like insomnia, inflammation and slowing down cancer. Activated cannabinoids are usually better for immediate relief of acute pain, nausea, and appetite. Research is being conducted to see if raw cannabinoids offer increased therapeutic benefits to patients who want effective treatment without an intoxicating high. Cannabinoids are not pshychoactive until activated through decarboxylation.
Recreational Marijuana is using cannabis by smoking, vaporizing, within food, or as an extract to induce a high feeling, pleasure, euphoria, relaxation or enhance sociability. Marijuana is still classified as a Schedule I substance by the DEA.
Rick Simpson Oil (RSO)
RSO is a concentrated form of cannabis oil that was developed by Rick Simpson. It is said to have anti-cancer and other therapeutic and healing benefits.
All cannabis strains come from 3 cannabis families: Sativa, Indica and Ruderalis. Ruderalis naturally has very low levels of THC and CBD and has not been used for cultivation until recently as it does not really have any effects on its own. However, it is a unique “auto-flowering” variety, and will flower with age rather than light cycles. Ruderalis is also a hardy plant and can be grown outdoors and survive harsh climates. It offers breeders the ability to create new auto-flowering Indica or Sativa hybrids with CBD-rich genetics.
The Sativa strain of cannabis originated in an area around the equator and can be found in countries like Colombia, Mexico, Thailand and several regions in Africa. Sativa is generally known for producing more cerebral, mental, energetic effects and can enhance creativity. Sativa is great for daytime as opposed to ‘Indica’, which can be more physically relaxing or sedating.
A strain is a specific variety of a plant species. Strains are developed to produce distinct and desired traits. Strain names often reflect the plant’s appearance, its type of ‘high’, or its place of origin.
Synthetic Cannabinoids are cannabinoids produced in the laboratory to structurally or functionally mimic the natural endocannabinoids or phytocannabinoids.
Terpenes/Terpenoids are a diverse class of strong smelling (aromatic) organic compounds that are produced by a variety of plants and insects that give the cannabis plant its distinct tastes and smells. Terpenes also create an entourage of health benefits and help fully expose and express cannabis’s unique aromatic and euphoric character.
THC is the abbreviation for tetrahydrocannabinol or delta-9-tetracannabinol. It is the most well-known phyto-cannabinoid found in the cannabis (marijuana) plants and is the compound that is responsible for the psychoactive (‘high’) and intoxicating effects. Medical marijuana contains THC and can soothe nausea, increase appetite, quiet pain, soothe anxiety and even reduce epileptic seizures. Marijuana’s medicinal uses can be traced back thousands of years where it had been used as a treatment for gout, rheumatism, malaria, poor memory, pain, stress relief and more. Research on the healing effects of cannabis are currently being studied.
Tinctures are liquid extracts made from herbs that you take orally, usually dosed with a dropper and placed under the tongue. Tinctures are easy and convenient to use. Because they are taken directly under the tongue, they enter the bloodstream much more directly than by any other means.
When starting a new medication or supplement, one needs to start with a low dose and gradually increase (titrate up) the dose by increments until the desired effect and maximum benefit is achieved.
With topical application, the medicinal properties of cannabis are absorbed through the skin and can be used to treat muscle aches, long term soreness, or ailments like dry skin and eczema.
Transdermal drug delivery system provides drug absorption via the skin. The skin is the largest and one of the most readily accessible organs of the human body. Transdermal delivery is noninvasive, convenient and eliminates gastric irritation, prevents hepatic first-pass metabolism, prevents gastric degradation of the medication and provides a sustained release mechanism for dosing. It is also good for patients who cannot tolerate oral dosage forms or are nauseated.
Transdermal Patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication to be absorbed through the skin and into the bloodstream. A wide variety of pharmaceuticals are now available in transdermal patch form.
Trichome is Greek for ‘growth of hair’. Trichomes are the glistening translucent resin glands that look like little hairs and protrude from the buds, leaves, and elsewhere on the plant. Trichomes absorb water and minerals and produce the hundreds of known cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids that make each cannabis strain potent, unique, and effective. Trichomes provide protection for the plant against fungus, the sun’s ultraviolet rays, and are a defense against insects, animals and rodents.
Vaporizer (‘vape’) is a device used to vaporize a particular substance (plant material) into the form of a vapor for the purpose of inhalation. ‘Vapes’ are commonly used for medical or recreational cannabis, tobacco, and other herbs or medicines.
Wax is a form of concentrated marijuana.
Weed is a slang term for marijuana.
Whole Plant products are derived from the entire cannabis plant not just an isolated part of it. The concept implies it may be better to use the whole plant than just individual cannabinoids isolated from it.